App install fraud: If advertisers pay per install, fraudsters will find a way to falsify the number of installations.
App name spoofing: Apps can submit a false app identifier to the bidding platform, interfering with detection of apps utilizing background services to load ads as well as brand safety and contextual targeting.
Banner stuffing: A form of pixel stuffing; multiple ads are stuffed in the same ad slot, but only one is visible.
Bot traffic: Invalid traffic designed to mimic users and inflate audience numbers.
Cookie stuffing: Process in which fraudsters add cookies from a different site than the one the consumer is actually visiting, in order to profit from the false action
General Invalid Traffic (GIVT): Traffic that comes from known, non-human sources on publicly available IP lists. This fraud can be identified through routine means of filtration.
Location fraud: Process in which fraudsters send false location information so the ads are served in locations other than where initially intended
Proxy traffic: Traffic is routed through an intermediary proxy device or network where the ad is rendered in a user’s device where there is a real human user.
Retargeting fraud: Bots mimic a human’s intentions, such as an interest in a specific brand, in order to warrant the higher CPM typically associated with retargeting. Advertisers are deceived into believing they are receiving valuable, targeted audiences.
SDK spoofing: The act of hacking software development kits (SDK) and manipulating ad impressions by mimicking real user behaviour.